Hiebert, R. E. (2003). Public relations and propaganda in framing the Iraq war: a preliminary review. Public relations review, 29, 243-255.

In this article Hiebert (2003) discusses the use of propaganda tools during the Iraq war in 2003. He concludes in this literature study that public relations and propaganda are fundamental essences during a war. As Hiebert concludes: framing and embedded journalism works perfectly as a propaganda tool but it only works when the public is not aware of the fact of the use of propaganda.